Tuesday, September 23, 2014

HORIZONTAL HISTORY (part 2): Putting It All Together

**”ISLAMIC EXPANSION” (624-1918)
- The European Renaissance ( 14th–17th century)  -Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics. Focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks in 1492.
- EUROPEAN COLONIALISM (16th century- 1960's) 
- “The Scientific Revolution” (17th-18th c.) -Began in Europe influencing the intellectual social movement known as “the Enlightenment”. The publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is often cited as marking the beginning of the scientific revolution, and its completion is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Newton's 1687 Principia. It was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
- “Romanticism during the Age of Reflection (1800–1840) -Was an intellectual movement that originated in Western Europe as a counter-movement to the late-18th-century Enlightenment. Romanticism incorporated many fields of study in the arts and humanities, but it also greatly influenced 19th-century science.  In contrast to Enlightenment mechanistic natural philosophy, European scientists of the Romantic period held that observing nature implied understanding the self, and that knowledge of nature "should not be obtained by force." They felt that the Enlightenment had encouraged the abuse of the sciences, and they sought to advance a new way to increase scientific knowledge, one that they felt would be more beneficial not only to mankind but to nature as well.  Romanticism advanced a number of themes: it promoted anti-reductionism (the whole was more valuable than the parts alone) and epistemological optimism (man was connected to nature), and encouraged creativity, experience, and genius. It also emphasized the scientist's role in scientific discovery as understanding that acquiring knowledge of nature meant understanding man as well; therefore, these scientists placed a high importance on respect for nature. Romanticism declined beginning around 1840 as a new movement, positivism, took hold of intellectuals and lasted until about 1880.  Intellectuals had become disenchanted with the “Enlightenment” and had sought a new approach to science, people now lost interest in “Romanticism” and sought to study science using a stricter process.
- “The Atlantic Slave Trade” or “Transatlantic Slave Trade” (1502-1800) -took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th - 19th century.
- “The Industrial Revolution” (1760-1840) -was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period all across Europe and North America.
(1) "The Great Game" (1813-1907) -was a term for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.
(A) “The Napoleonic Wars” (1803–1815) were a series of wars between Napoleon's French Empire and a series of opposing coalitions. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon was defeated in 1814; he returned and was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo and all France's gains were taken away by the victors.
(2) “The Crimean War” (October 1853 – February 1856) -was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Orthodox Christians. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. Russia lost the war and the Ottomans gained a twenty-year respite from Russian pressure.
(B)World War I (28 July 1914-November 1918) was a global war centered in Europe. 
(C)”World War II” (1939-1945) was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations -including all of the great powers -eventually forming two opposing military alliances: "the Allies" and "the Axis". It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.
(D) “Cold War” (1945-1991) was "cold" because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan that the two sides supported. Also involved was support of Pan-Arabism movements in the Middle East and Communist movements in Latin America and Africa supported by the Russians which counteracted support of Conservative elements of Islam and Dictatorships that propped up Capitalist systems in Latin America and Africa by the U.S.A.
(E) War On Terror(2001-2014) –Involving Al Qaeda, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria, ISIS, the U.K., France, and the U.S.A.
(F) “Cold War 2” (2008-2014) –Between Georgia, Ukraine, Russia; Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, China, the U.S.A., NATO; Syria.
(G) “World War III(2015- ????)
Right now, we are in the "2nd Cold War", "the War on Terror", and "World War 3" simultaneously.

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