Friday, September 26, 2014

HORIZONTAL HISTORY (part 3): Transformation of Spirituality in India

(????-3000 BCE)     Cave Dwellers and Forest Tribes in existence

(3000-2000 BCE)    Trade links with Mesopotamia established

(2000-1200 BCE)    Vedic culture established

(1500-1200 BCE)    Rig Veda completed

(1200-600 BCE)      Brahaminical Orthodoxy established

(1000-900 BCE)         Atharva Veda completed

(800-500 BCE)           Asceticism, Buddhism, and Jainism emerge

(800 BCE -200 CE)    Hero Cults appear

(900-700 BCE)         Brahmanas completed

(500 BCE-400 CE)    Contact with Persia established and trade links with Rome established

(400-300 BCE)      Jatakas completed

(400 BCE-500 CE)   Sutras completed

(300 BCE-300 CE)     Mahabharata completed

(300-200 CE)    Thomas brings Christianity to India

(200 BCE-200 CE)   Ramayana completed

(200-600 CE)    Panchatantra completed

(200-800 CE)     Popularization of Temple culture

(400-500 CE)    Kamasutra completed

(400- 600 CE)    Invasion and absorption of Huns and Gujar tribes from the North West; Rajput militaristic traditions formed, Social and Religious feudalism

(400-800 CE)    Dharmashastras written

(500-900 CE)    Strange hold of Brahaminical patriarchal values, Caste identity becomes inflexible, rituals of purity and “untouchability” gain ground, Arabs arrive on Western coast, India isolated

(500-1500 CE)    Puranas completed

(500-1200 CE)   Tantras completed

(500-1200 CE)    Agamas completed

(1000-1700 CE)  Heaven, Hell, Redemption, and Submission become popular in India

(1000 CE)     Katha-Sarit-Sagar completed

(1500-1800 CE)   Hinduism crafted under European rule.  Western education implemented

(1800-2000 CE)    Rise in Hindu nationalism and fundamentalism 

       "Hinduism is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent, and consists of many diverse traditions. It includes 'Shaivism', 'Vaishnavism', and 'Shaktism' among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of 'daily morality' based on 'karma', 'dharma', and 'societal norms'. The Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called "Hindu synthesis".  Moreover, Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.  Hinduism has been called the 'oldest religion' in the world, and some practitioners refer to it as 'Sanātana Dharma' ('the eternal law' or the 'eternal way' beyond human origins). It prescribes the 'eternal' duties all Hindus have to follow, regardless of class, caste, or sect, such as honesty, purity, and self-restraint.  Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder. This "Hindu synthesis" emerged around the beginning of the Common Era, and co-existed for several centuries with Buddhism, to finally gain the upper hand in most royal circles during the 8th century CE. From northern India this 'Hindu synthesis', and its societal divisions, spread to southern India and parts of Southeast Asia.  Since the 19th century, under the dominance of western colonialism and Indology, when the term 'Hinduism' came into broad use, Hinduism has re-asserted itself as a coherent and independent tradition.The popular understanding of Hinduism has been dominated by 'Hindu modernism', in which mysticism and the unity of Hinduism have been emphasized. During 20th century, Hindutva ideology, a part of the Hindu politics emerged as a political force and a source for national identity in India".

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